The beauty of Ethiopia
Ethiopia is bounded to the north by Eritrea, to the northeast by Djibouti, to the east by Somalia, to the south by Kenya, and to the west by South Sudan and Sudan.
Many different artistic disciplines are practiced in Ethiopia, including music, dance, iconography, calligraphy, needlework, and manuscript illumination. There are two categories in Ethiopian art. The first is the tradition of Christian art, which is primarily characterized by representations of churches in paintings, crosses, icons, illuminated manuscripts, and other metals like crowns. The Bible’s accounts of Mary and Jesus’ lives make for popular painting subjects. Angels are frequently depicted surrounding them.
The Flight into Egypt is one of the most well-known works of art. It is a significant subject because it serves as a reminder that Africa protected the Holy Family from persecution in Israel. Most of the artworks are seen in religious settings such as in the church walls and bibles. For instance, the paintings in the late 17th-century painting Debre Berhan Selassie are renowned for their angel-covered dome. Additionally, some antique churches have murals painted inside, some have canvas icons hanging on the walls, and still others have old illuminated manuscripts.
Second, Ethiopian art includes arts and crafts made of textiles, jewelry, and basketry that represent the local customs. The paintings and icons are very distinctive in Ethiopia even though they are strongly related to Byzantine Christian art and the streamlined Coptic version of Late Antiquity. For instance, they frequently include cartoon characters with big, almond-shaped eyes, and the colors are usually brilliant and bright.
Today, bright Ethiopian murals covering every wall in Makush portray scenarios such as monks praying in the dawn, bustling markets, and pictures of long, lanky ladies. In addition to starting enterprises, young Ethiopians are also purchasing artwork, and new international organizations are moving into the city. Foreigners and tourists make up 65% of the clientele, with rich Ethiopian residents making up the remaining 35%. However, as Ethiopian art garners more interest and attention, there may be a potential boost in money and an uptick in the country’s economy. In fact, instead of sending photographic photos in poster-size frames and gold jewelry as gifts for weddings and special events, Ethiopians are starting to give paintings.
Rich Art of of Ethiopia
Even though Ethiopian art has a long history, until recently there was no market for modern and contemporary Ethiopian art. For instance, the Makush Art Gallery & Restaurant in Addis Abeba, the capital of Ethiopia, serves to illustrate the development of Ethiopian art and its impact on the wider globe. Customers can choose from a variety of more than 650 paintings at the art gallery, which features about 70 different painters.
The proprietor of the art gallery testified that he decided to create his own gallery 12 years ago after moving back to his native country after residing in the US and observing the dearth of galleries there. He started with 15 artists when he founded Makush, an Italian-style restaurant and art gallery. Despite the restaurant space, the gallery made more money from the painting, earning more than 6 million birr ($300,000, £183,000), which is more than twice the earnings from the restaurant.
Relief of Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s topography is built on four geologic formations, making it one of the most rugged in Africa. Precambrian rocks (more than 540 million years old) form Ethiopia’s oldest basal complex, as they do in most of Africa. Except in parts of northern, western, and southern Ethiopia, where exposed granite and schist rock layers exist, the Precambrian layer is buried beneath more recent geologic formations. The Mesozoic Era (about 250 to 65 million years ago) geologic processes contributed sedimentary layers of limestone and sandstone, the majority of which have been eroded or covered by volcanic rocks.
Younger sedimentary layers can be found in northern Ethiopia and on the Rift Valley floor. Lava flows from the Cenozoic Era (the last 65 million years) formed basaltic layers that now cover two-thirds of Ethiopia’s land surface, ranging in thickness from about 1,000 feet (300 metres) to nearly 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). The Rift Valley forms a spectacular graben (a massive tectonic trough) that runs through the country from the northern border with Eritrea to the southern border with Kenya.
Although Ethiopia’s complex terrain defies easy classification, five distinct topographic features can be identified. The Western Highlands, Western Lowlands, Eastern Highlands, Eastern Lowlands, and Rift Valley are among them. The Western Highlands are Ethiopia’s most extensive and rugged topographic component. The North Central massifs are the most spectacular, forming the roof of Ethiopia, with elevations ranging from 14,872 feet (4,533 metres) for Mount Ras Dejen (or Dashen), Ethiopia’s highest point, to the Blue Nile and Tekeze river channels 10,000 feet below. At an elevation of about 6,000 feet, Lake Tana—largest Ethiopia’s inland lake and the main reservoir for the Blue Nile River—is located in this region (1,800 metres).
The East African Rift System includes the Rift Valley. It is divided into two sections by the escarpments of the Western and Eastern Highlands. The first section is located in the northeast, where the valley floor widens into a funnel shape as it approaches the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. This is a relatively flat area interrupted only by the occasional active volcanic cone. The Denakil Plain is located here, and a depression known as the Kobar Sink drops as low as 380 feet (116 metres) below sea level. The northeastern Rift Valley is unappealing for settlement due to high temperatures and a lack of moisture. In contrast, the southwestern section is a narrow depression with much higher elevation. It is home to Ethiopia’s Lakes Region, a drainage basin of many small rivers that drain into Lakes Abaya, Abiyata, Awasa, Langano, Shala, Chamo, and Ziway. These lakes cover an area of more than 1,200 square miles (3,108 square kilometers). The upper Rift Valley is one of Ethiopia’s most productive and settled regions.
Relief of Ethiopia - 2
The Western Lowlands run north-south along Sudan’s and South Sudan’s borders, and include the lower valleys of the Blue Nile, Tekeze, and Baro rivers. These lowlands become too hot to attract dense settlement at elevations of about 3,300 feet (1,000 meters).
The Eastern Highlands are much smaller in size than the Western Highlands, but they provide just as much topographic contrast. Tullu Deemtu (Tulu Dmtu) at 14,360 feet (4,377 meters) and Mount Batu at 14,127 feet are the highest peaks (4,305 metres). The Eastern Lowlands resemble a bridal gown’s long train, abruptly descending from the narrow band of the Eastern Highlands and gently rolling for hundreds of miles to the Somali border. The Ogaden and the Hawd are two important regions in this area. The Shebele and Genale rivers cut through the lowlands, influencing desert ecology.
Ethiopia is divided into three major drainage systems. The western drainage system is the largest and includes the watersheds of the Blue Nile (known as the Abay in Ethiopia), the Tekeze, and the Baro rivers. In South Sudan and Sudan, all three rivers flow west to the White Nile. The second is the internal drainage system of the Rift Valley, which includes the Awash River, the Lakes Region, and the Omo River.
The Awash flows northeast to the Denakil Plain before dissipating into a series of swamps and Lake Abe near Djibouti’s border. The Lakes Region is a self-contained drainage basin, with the Omo flowing south into Lake Turkana (Rudolf), on the Kenyan border. The Shebele and Genale rivers form the third system. Both rivers flow southeast from the Eastern Highlands toward Somalia and the Indian Ocean. Only the Genale (Jubba in Somalia) reaches the sea; the Shebele (Shabeelle in Somalia) vanishes in the sand just inside the coastline.
The third type of soil is dark clay, which can be found in the Western Lowlands and the foothills of the Western Highlands. They are made up of vertisols and have a medium to high potential for food and agriculture, but they cause tillage issues because they harden when dry and become sticky when wet. These soils support some of Ethiopia’s richest coffee-growing regions.
In Ethiopia, soil erosion is a major issue. Population density, particularly in the northern provinces, which have been settled with sedentary agriculture for millennia, has caused significant damage to the soil’s physical base, organic and chemical nutrients, and natural vegetation cover. Even on the cool plateaus, where good volcanic soils abound, primitive farming methods have exposed the soils to heavy seasonal rain, resulting in extensive gully and sheet erosion.
Soils of Ethiopia
Ethiopian soils are classified into five major types. The first type is made up of euritic nitosols and andosols and can be found in the Western and Eastern highlands. These soils are formed from volcanic material and have a medium to high potential for rain-fed agriculture with proper management. The Simien plateau of the Western Highlands is home to the second group of soils, eutric cambisols and ferric and orthic luvisols. They are highly weathered, with a subsurface clay accumulation, and have low nutrient retention, surface crusting, and erosion hazards. They have medium agricultural potential if properly managed.
The fourth group includes yermosols, xerosols, and other saline soils found in the desert areas of the Eastern Lowlands and the Denakil Plain. They are unsuitable for rain-fed agriculture due to a lack of moisture and coarse texture. The wetter margins, on the other hand, are ideal for livestock, and even the drier margins respond well to irrigation. The fifth soil type is lithosols, which are mostly found in the Denakil Plain. These soils cannot be cultivated due to a lack of moisture and a shallow profile.
Ethiopia’s lower elevations experience climatic conditions typical of tropical savanna or desert due to its location in the tropical latitudes. However, because relief plays a significant role in temperature regulation, higher elevations experience weather more typical of temperate zones. Thus, the highlands have average annual temperatures in the low 60s F (mid-10s C), while the lowlands have temperatures in the low 80s F. (upper 20s C).
Ethiopia has four distinct rainfall regimes. Rain falls all year in the southern Western Highlands, where annual precipitation can reach 80 inches (2,000 mm). Summer rainfall falls on the Eastern Highlands and the northern portion of the Western Highlands; annual precipitation in these areas can reach 55 inches (1,400 mm). Rain falls twice a year in the Eastern Lowlands, in April-May and October-November, with two dry periods in between. The total annual precipitation ranges between 20 and 40 inches (500 to 1,000 mm). The Denakil Plain receives less than 20 inches (500 mm) of rain per year, and sometimes none at all.
Ethiopia has three distinct seasons. The bega, or long dry season, lasts from September to February, followed by the belg, or short rainy season, in March and April. May is a hot and dry month that precedes the long rainy season (kremt) that lasts from June to August. The coldest months are usually December or January (bega), and the hottest months are March, April, or May. (belg). However, due to the moderating influence of rainfall, July has the coldest temperatures in many areas.
Ethiopian Airlines at Bole International Airport Airlines list
About Ethiopian Airlines | The Largest Airline in Africa Fact Sheet
Ethiopian Airlines is the principal airline based at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, with flights to over 125 domestic and international destinations.
Ethiopian Airlines Background Information
Founded E December 21, 1945
Starting date of operation E April 08, 1946
Major Hub E Addis Ababa
Second Hub E Togo, Lome
Third Hub E Lilongwe, Malawi
Ownership E Government of Ethiopia (100%)
Head Office E Bole International Airport, P.O. Box 1755
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tel: (+ 251) 11 665 2222
Fax: (+ 251)11661 1474
Reservations E Tel: (+251) 11 665 6666
(+251) 11 665 6161
Website E http://www.ethiopianairlines.com
Chief Executive Officer E Mr. Tewolde GebreMariam
M i s s i o n S t a t e m e n t
To become Africa’s foremost aviation group by offering safe and dependable passenger and freight transportation, aviation training, flight catering, MRO, and ground services that are always superior in quality and price than their competitors. To be the airline of choice for its passengers, the employer of choice for its staff, and the investment of choice for its owner.
Network Information of Ethiopian Airlines
Services to 92 International and 20 Domestic destinations:
In Africa (51):
* Abidjan, Abuja, Accra, Addis Ababa, Bamako, Bahir Dar, Blantyre, Brazzaville, Bujumbura, Cairo,
Cape Town, Cottonou, Dakar, Durban, Dar-Es-Salaam, Dire Dawa, Djibouti, Douala, Entebbe,
Enugu, Gaborone, Goma, Harare, Hargeisa, Johannesburg, Juba, Khartoum, Kano, Kigali,
Kilimanjaro, Kinshasa, Lagos, Libreville, Lilongwe, Lome, Luanda, Lubumbashi, Lusaka, Malabo,
Maputo, Mekele, Mombasa, N’Djamena, Nairobi, Ndola, Niamey, Ouagadougou, Pointe-Noire,
Seychelles, Yaounde and Zanzibar.
In Europe & the Americas (16):
* Brussels, Dublin, Frankfurt, Liege, London, Los Angeles, Maastricht, Milan, Madrid, Paris,
Rome, Sao Paulo, Stockholm, Toronto, Vienna and Washington DC.
In the Middle East & Asia (25):
* Bahrain, Bengaluru, Bangkok, Beijing, Beirut, Chennia, Dammam, Delhi, Doha, Dubai,
Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuwait, Manila, Mumbai, Muscat, Riyadh,
Sana’a, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Tel Aviv, and Tokyo.
* Addis Ababa, Arba Minch, Assosa, Axum, Bale-Robe, Bahar Dar, Dire Dawa, Gambella, Gonder,
Gode, Hawassa, Humera, Jijiga, Jimma, Kabri Dar, Kombolcha, Lalibela, Mekele, Semera, and
Ethiopian Cargo Network
Freighter Fleet: (8)
➢ 6 – 777F
2 – Boeing 757-260F (cargo)
Freighter Destinations, (46):
In Africa (35):
* Abidjan, Abuja, Accra, Addis Ababa, Bamako, Brazzaville, Bujumbura, Cairo, Cottonou, Dakar,
Dar es Salaam, Douala, Entebbe, Enugu, Harare, Johannesburg, Juba, Kano, Khartoum, Kigali,
Kinshasa, Lagos, Libreville, Lilongwe, Lome, Luanda, Lubumbashi, Lusaka, Malabo, Maputo,
N’Djamena, Nairobi, Niamey, Ouagadougou, and Pointe-Noire.
In the Gulf, the Middle East and Asia (9):
* Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Dubai World Center, Hong Kong, Jeddah, Mumbai, Riyadh and
In Europe: (2)
* Maastricht and Liege
Ethiopian Airlines Training
All aviation training systems are self-sufficient at Ethiopian Aviation Academy. Since its foundation, the Academy has provided instruction in the following areas:
Marketing & Sales as well as Management and Finance staff
B737 NG Simulator
Diamond DA40/42 Simulator
Ten Diamond DA40 training aircraft
Two Diamond DA42 training aircraft
Fact about Ethiopian Cargo
Ethiopian Cargo began service to Nairobi in 1946. Ethiopia’s growing agricultural export products have had a favorable impact on the growth of cargo services since the early 1970s.
Ethiopian cargo services operates dedicated freighter aircraft on a charter and scheduled basis, in addition to using the belly space of the passenger fleet of B767-300, B757-200, B777-200 LR, B737-700, and B737-800 aircraft. Ethiopian now serves 46 cargo destinations in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East through its hubs in Addis Ababa and Liege.
The new cargo terminal covers:
Apron area: 44,390 square meters
Terminal size: 14,000 square meters
Capacity: 350,000 tons of air cargo per annum
Cold room size: 2,000 square meters, cold room storage: 130 tons of palletized cargo
Office area: 4,500 square meters
Parking area: 19,200 square meters
Ethiopian is currently providing Ground Services to the following destinations on a regular basis:
o Gulf Air
o Qatar Airways
o Saudi Arabian Airlines
o Turkish Airways
o Egypt Air
o Kenya Airways
o Yemen Air
o Sudan Airways
o Fly Dubai
o Air China
Ethiopian Airlines Performance
The numbers for the fiscal year 2014/15, which ended on June 30, were audited by Ethiopian Performance.
Passenger carried: 6.4 million +7%
Available Seat Kilometer (ASK) +7%
Revenue Passenger Kilometer (RPK) +6%
Available Ton Kilometer (ATK) +10%
Operating Profit: 4.3 billion Birr +27%
Net profit: 3.5 billion ETB +12%
Operating Revenue: ETB 49.5 billion +6%
Core Value Statement of Ethiopian Airlines
As an airline, we place a premium on safety. ET is a learning and high-performing organization. We are a non-discriminatory employer. Internal and external clients are treated the same manner we would like to be treated.
Ethiopian Airlines Fleet information
Current Fleet (76 Aircraft) 13 – Boeing 787 Dreamliner
4 – Boeing 777-300ER
6 – Boeing 777-200LR
6 – Boeing 777F (cargo)
2 – Boeing 757-200F (cargo)
7 – Boeing 767-300
2 – Boeing 757-200ER
5 – Boeing 737-700NG
14 – B737-800W
17 – DHC8-Q400 NextGen
Fleet on order (42 Aircraft) 14 – A350-900 from Airbus
6 – Boeing 787 Dreamliner
2 – Boeing 787-9s
20 – 737 MAX 8s
Who is Ethiopian Airlines Code Share Partners
Ethiopian has code share agreements with:
South African Airways
TAP Portugal Airline
All Nippon Airways
ELAL Israel Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines Catering
Since its start in 1968, Ethiopian Catering has provided meal service to its on-board customers from its home base, in addition to in-flight service preparations, in-flight entertainment, duty-free items, and other services. Charter and VIP flights departing from the Addis Ababa Hub can also take advantage of these services.
The catering sector has signed a deal with an international catering service provider to cater long-haul flights back to their home base. The device also keeps an eye on the Cloud Nine and Shebamiles Lounges at Addis Ababa International Airport’s departure gate. Ethiopian Catering has worked hard to improve its services in order to better serve travelers by going above and beyond expectations.
Ethiopian Airlines AWard
- On March 17, 2016, the National Association of Nigerian Travel Agents (NANTA) named Ethiopian Airlines the Best Airline in Nigeria. The event took held at the Premier Hotel Ibadan during the Association’s 40th annual general meeting.
- For the second year in a row, Ethiopian Airlines was named “Best Airline to Africa” and “Best Airline in Africa” by Premier Traveler, one of the most influential travel publications in the United States. Tewolde GebreMariam, the CEO of the Ethiopian Group, accepted the honors on December 10, 2015 in Los Angeles, California.
- At an event held on December 8, 2015 at the Le Meridien Hotel in Mauritius, Ethiopian won the “Africa Best Employer Brand Awards.” Employer Branding Institute, in cooperation with Stars of the Industry Group and other partners, is hosting the Africa Best Employer Brand Awards – Second Edition.
- At the continental Championship Men award ceremony held on December 3, 2015 in Durban, South Africa, Ethiopian Airlines Group CEO Tewolde GebreMariam got the “Most Gender Focused CEO Award 2015” from the Leading Women of Africa (LWA).
- The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) presented Ethiopian Aviation Academy with the ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS Full Membership award at a regional symposium held in New Delhi, India from November 17-20, 2015.
- Ethiopian earned the African Airlines Association’s (AFRAA) Airline of the Year Award for the fourth time in a row at its 47th Annual General Assembly in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, between November 8 and 12.
- At the 2015 CAPA Aviation Honors for Excellence, held on 7 October 2015 in Helsinki as part of CAPA’s 2015 World Aviation Summit, Ethiopian earned the CAPA Airline of the Year Award, one of the top airline awards.
- At the APEX 2015 EXPO, held on September 27, 2015 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland, Ethiopian received the Passenger Choice Awards for “Best Airline in Africa” for the third year in a row.
- On October 15, 2015, at Crowne Plaza Changi Airport in Singapore, Ethiopian won “The Rising Star Carrier of the Year Award” at the Payload Asia Awards 2015 gala dinner, which was attended by more than 250 members of the air cargo fraternity from around the world.
- In September, Ethiopian Airlines was named Best International Airline of the Year at the Business Executive Excellence Awards in Accra, Ghana. Ethiopian took home the prize for outstanding performance and overall contribution to Ghana’s economy.
- On May 26, 2015, Ethiopian Airlines received the 2015 Airline Reliability Performance Award from Bombardier Aerospace. For the fifth year in a row, Ethiopians have received this honor. Ethiopian won the award for High Dispatch Reliability of a Q400 Fleet in the Q400-Africa and Middle East Region, making it first overall in the Q-400 product category for the region.
- In Milan, Ethiopia’s CEO was awarded the 2015 International Grand Prix Special Award. The award was given to him for leading Ethiopian Airlines’ transition into Africa’s leading aviation group and for pioneering the airline’s transformation into one of the world’s fastest growing airlines.
Addis Ababa Bole Terminals
Lounges and VIP services at Ethiopia’s main airport
Passengers can wait for flights or relax during layovers in lounges located in both terminals of Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
Terminal 1: Ethiopia Airlines ShebaMiles Lounge
- Opening hours: 5 am to midnight
- Services: Premium food offering, WiFi
Terminal 2: Ethiopia Airlines Cloud Nine Lounge I and II
- Opening hours: 24 hours
- Services: Premium food and beverages, WiFi, television, printers, newspapers and magazines
Terminal 2: Etiopian Airlines Star Alliance Gold Lounge
- Opening hours: first to last departure of the day
- Services: premium food and snacks, WiFi, television, newspapers and magazines